Bite: occlusion; relationship of the upper and lower jaws when the mouth is closed.
Canine tooth: the first premolar; long grasping tooth or a dog's fang.
Deciduous: temporary. Example: A puppy's deciduous teeth are shed before maturity and replaced by permanent teeth.
Dentition: canine tooth development and eruption. In the dog, there are 12 deciduous incisors that erupt at four to five weeks of age, three on each side, six in the upper jaw and six in the lower. Behind them are four deciduous canine teeth, one on either side, in the upper and lower jaws that erupt at about the same time as the incisors. The 12 deciduous premolars erupt about a week later, and are positioned behind the canines, three on each side, in the upper and lower jaws. They complete the set of 28 deciduous or milk teeth. At about three months of age, the central incisors are replaced by permanent teeth. The four permanent canine teeth are often the last to appear, and typically are not visible until about six months of age. Permanent premolars begin to erupt about four months of age. There are four on each side, on both the upper and lower jaws, and the rearmost is usually visible by six months of age. Those 16 permanent teeth take the place of the 12 deciduous premolars. The two upper molars on each side and three lower molars on each side also begin to appear at about four months, with the last of the ten erupting at about six months. Those 42 teeth make up the permanent set of adult teeth.
Eruption: 1. breaking out of a visible, circumscribed lesion of the skin. 2. normal activity of the teeth as they break through the gums.
Full dentition: no missing teeth.
Incisors: any one of the "biting off" or "cutting" teeth directly in the front of the mouth. There are six incisors in the upper jaw, six in the lower. They are named central, intermediate, and corner.
Level bite: when upper and lower incisors meet evenly.
Overbite: when upper incisors overlap lower incisors, leaving a gap between the teeth.
Scissors bite: when upper incisors just overlap lower incisors, such that the rear surface of the upper incisors touches the outer surface of the lower incisors.
Premolars: smaller teeth situated just to the rear of the fangs (canines).
Punishing mouth: strong, powerful jaws.
Undershot bite: when lower incisors extend beyond upper incisors.
Ear guide dog: canine specially trained to aid deaf humans.
Ear hematoma: pocket of blood that occurs between the layers of the ear pinna cartilage and skin. It is often caused by shaking head and whipping the ears due to ear mites or foreign bodies in the external ear canals.
Ear leather: pinna or flap of the ear.
Ear mange: redness and crustiness of the ear that is usually caused by ear mites (Otodectes cynotis).
Earmark: tattoo that is impregnated in the ear leather as a means of permanent identification.
Ear mites: Otodectes cynotis, a tiny mite that parasitizes ear canals and causes intense itching and irritation.
Ear notch: in foxhunting, a small notch, or notches, cut in the margin of the ear of the entire pack to immediately identify the dogs of that pack.
Ear ossicles: three bones of the middle ear—malleus, incus and stapes. They transmit sound waves from the eardrum to the otic ganglion.
Ear set: describing where on the heard the ears are attached
Ears set high: placement of ears high on the crown of the head.
Ears set low: placement of the ears set low on the head.
Ears set wide: placement of the ears on the head at the maximum distance apart.
Erect: perk ear; pinna of the ear that stands erect, either normally or assisted by ear cropping.
Rose ears: small ears folded back in repose (example: Greyhound).
Semidrop ears: ears that fall over the breaks at the tip.
Semiprick: aural appendages that are carried erect with the tips breaking forward.
Pendulant or Pendant: hanging down (example: Bloodhound's ears).
Pinna: the part of the ear that outside the head; flap or leather.
Herring gutted: gradual slope from a fairly shallow chest to tuck-up.
High in rear: a dog that is higher over its rear quarters than over its front quarters.
High-stationed: tall and long-legged.
Hock: Hock Joint: joint on the hind limb between lower thigh and pastern. Since the hock is a joint it cannot itself be long or short; terms such as long or short in hock refer to the distance between the hock joint and the ground.
Loin: region between the ribcage and croup.
Pastern: region of the metatarsus that extends from the hock to the foot in the hind leg, and the metacarpal area of the foreleg.
Racy: long-legged with a slight build.
Rangy: long-bodied with a shallow chest.
Rib spring: arch formed by the ribcage; more spring refers to more arch.
Roach back: an overly arched, convex topline.
Shelly: narrow, shallow chest and body.
Short-coupled: short loin area.
Swayback: a sunken, concave topline.
Topline: line formed by the withers, back loin, and croup.
Tuck-up: area under the loin in a small-waisted dog.
Adoption: to choose or take as one's own; make one's own by selection or assent. To adopt a pet.
Agility: judged competitive timed events for dogs and their handlers in which dogs are trained to master different obstacles such as: tunnels, bridges, various types of high jumps, jumps through windows, board jumps and jumps through tires. The course also includes inclined planes, elevated planks to walk, A-frames to climb and more. Various agility titles are awarded to dogs that successfully complete the course in which they are entered.
Balance: overall proportion and symmetry of conformation.
Bitch: female dog.
Bucketing: to bucket a puppy: Bucketing, to bucket a puppy: When a breeder tosses a newborn puppy into water, drowning it. The reason for the practice is often the breeder feels the dog is not worthy of life because it does not make the written club standards of the specific breed or the puppy does not display the preferred color or type even though it is accepted by the club.
Conformation: physical make-up.
Cynophobia: the fear of dogs.
Dam: female parent.
Dealer: one who buys and sells dogs bred by others.
Dominance: assertive characteristics of a dog and its influence over other dogs.
Dominant: alpha dog of a pack that displays a behavior superiority or dominance over other dogs of the pack, and exerts a rule influence
Dysplasia: abnormality of development, especially of the hip or elbow, but it may refer to an organ of the body
Dystrophy: abnormal behavior; behavior problems.
F1: First generation or first cross—the result of two purebred dogs mated together. The puppies would be F1 puppies.
F2: second cross—could mean any next step in the breeding program after F1. Often the F1 offspring bred back to a purebred dog.
F3: third cross after F2 and so on.
Feathering: whelping technique where breeder helps pregnant mother dog (dam) along in her contractions.
Feist: Rat Terrier.
Feral dog: a dog living in a fully wild state.
Flock: 1. collected group of livestock (usually sheep) that are used in a herding trial. 2. farm birds or livestock that are gathered or herded together.
Flyball: in agility trails, a competition that involves a course of jumping and ends with a treadle that the dog steps on to cause a ball to pop out of a box. The dog must catch the ball and return it to the handler.
Game Dog: a working dog usually a hunting , herding or terrier type that will work until it drops, never gives up, perseveres and is ready and willing for anything. See Game Dogs
High in rear: a dog that is higher over its rear quarters than over its front quarters.
High-stationed: tall and long-legged
Hip dysplasia: a very common and debilitating genetic disease of the hips, where the junction of the femur head (large bone in the leg) and the hip socket do not fit as they should. Often, surgery is necessary to correct the problem.
In and In: inbreeding of dogs without regards to results
Inbred: descriptive of offspring of mated dogs that are closely related to each other
Inbreeding: practice of mating siblings to each other—father to daughter, mother to son, or other animals closely related to each other.
Kennel: 1.backyard doghouse where family pets or breeding stock are kept. 2. commercial establishment used to maintain a group of dogs, such as a boarding kennel. 3. in foxhunting, fox's lair. 4. foxhunting term for the hound pack's lodging place.
Kennel type: bloodline or strain of dogs that has been developed by an individual breeder in a specific kennel
Line: 1. family of related dogs, usually bred by a single kennel. 2. in foxhunting, the track of a quarry that is indicated by scent. 3. a stripe, streak or lineal mark on a dog's coat
Linebreeding: mating two dogs that have the same bloodline but are not closely related; a technique used to concentrate and fix genetic features in dog.
Lineage: genealogical descent from a common ancestor; dog's pedigree or family tree.
Metacarpus: referring to bones leading from the carpus (wrist) to the toes; anatomical region of the forepastern.
Molossian dog: Greek sculpture of a Mastiff that belonged to Olympias, the daughter of King Pyrrhus. It is supposed to be a direct ancestor of the modern Mastiff.
Mongrel: cur; mutt; mixed breeds; dogs of unknown ancestry and questionable parentage.
Mops: 1. profuse hair on the paws. 2. German name for the Pug.
OFA: Orthopedic Foundation for Animals.
OFA-certified: a dog’s hips have been x-rayed for hip dysplasia, a very common and debilitating genetic disease.
Pariah dog: is used as a generic term for dogs with a more or less intensive human connection. Some scientists reserve the term for the Indian dog of a specific type, i.e. a Pariah dog: ownerless half-wild mongrel dog common around Asian villages especially India.
Plucking: pulling out loose hair by hand
Puppy Mill: place in which puppies are bred, often in unsuitable and sometimes inhumane conditions, for sale to dealers
Purebred: a dog that has parents of the same breed.
Schutzhund: dog that is specially trained and conditioned for guard and attack work.
Schutzhund competition: tests of a guard dog's training in attacking a well padded "enemy".
Sch: abbreviation for the sport of Schutzhund.
Sire: male parent
Square-proportioned: height at withers equal to length from point of sternum to point of croup.
Stacking: teaching a dog to stand in a show stance that exhibits its characteristics favorably.
Standard: the official blueprint for a breed.
Stifle: knee joint; articulation between the tibia and fibula and the femur.
Stray dog: a dog more or less associated with man who does not have a home; homeless; without a home.
Stripping: the process of hand plucking the outer guard hairs either with your fingers or a stripping knife. removal of the undercoat and dead outercoat without losing the harsh texture; plucking.
Substance: fairly heavy bone and musculature
Typey: having a superior body conformation; meeting the breeds standard
Variety: a subtype of a breed that is shown separately, but that can be interbred with other varieties of the same breed.
Weedy: lacking sufficient bone and musculature
Wicket: device for measuring the height of a dog, consisting of two vertical bars joined by a horizontal bar that can be adjusted for height.